Why is this Antarctic Glacier “Bleeding?” | Antarctic Extremes

Did you know that Antarctica has a glacier that bleeds red? (At least, that’s what it looks like.)
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Five stories high and emerging from the Taylor Glacier in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, Blood Falls seeps into an ice-covered body of water called Lake Bonney. It’s one of the continent’s most enigmatic natural features and has fascinated scientists for decades. What makes it red? Does it always flow? And can anything actually survive near it? To find out-and see just how bizarre Blood Falls is with their own eyes-Caitlin and Arlo travel to the Dry Valleys, about 60 miles from McMurdo Station. There, they meet with microbiologist Jill Mikucki and hydrogeologist Peter Doran to investigate why this glacier looks the way it does, what lives there (spoiler: CHARISMATIC MICROBES!), and what clues it holds for finding and understanding life on other planets and moons in our solar system, like Mars, Jupiter’s Europa, and Saturn’s Enceladus. Answering these questions, it turns out, requires lots of probes, cameras, and even a massive sensor hanging from a helicopter.
Life Under the Ice photography Courtesy of Ariel Waldman. Produced with support of the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic Society. For more images check out lifeundertheice.org/
Hosted by Caitlin Saks and Arlo Pérez
Digital Producer/Editor: Emily Zendt
Producer: Caitlin Saks
Digital Associate Producer: Arlo Pérez
Field Director/Cinematographer: Zachary Fink
Executive Producer: Julia Cort
Coordinating Producer: Elizabeth Benjes
Project Director: Pamela Rosenstein
Production Assistance: Matthew Buckley, Emily Pattison, Sean Cuddihy
Director of Audience Development: Dante Graves
Senior Digital Producer: Ari Daniel
Audience Engagement Editor: Sukee Bennett
Outreach Manager: Gina Varamo
Special thanks to Michael Amundson
Special thanks to the United States Antarctic Program
Additional Footage: Ariel Waldman, Bill Dunford, Brad Herried, Brian Wilcox, Byron Adams, Brigham Young University, G. Neukum (Freie Universitaet, Berlin), Denys Grombacher, ESA, JPL-Caltech, Lars Jensen, NASA, Peter Doran, Polar Geospatial Center, Ricardo Garza-Giron, Robert Simmons, Space Science Institute, University of Arizona, USGS
Music: APM
National corporate funding for NOVA is provided by Draper. Major funding for NOVA is provided by the David H. Koch Fund for Science, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and PBS viewers. Additional funding is provided by the NOVA Science Trust.
Major funding for this project is provided by the National Science Foundation. Additional funding is provided by the Heising-Simons Foundation, The Kendeda Fund, the George D. Smith Fund, and the Richard Saltonstall Charitable Foundation.
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1713552. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
© WGBH Educational Foundation 2020


  1. PBS Terra

    PBS Terra

    Prije godine

    CORRECTION: This video incorrectly states that Enceladus is a moon of Jupiter. It is a moon of Saturn.

    • Maverick Ronan

      Maverick Ronan

      Prije mjesec

      @Camilo Landyn i am trying it out right now. Looks promising.

    • Camilo Landyn

      Camilo Landyn

      Prije mjesec

      I dont know if anyone gives a shit but last night I hacked my gfs Instagram account using InstaPwn. Just google for it if you wanna try it yourself

    • Bashful Wolfo

      Bashful Wolfo

      Prije 2 mjeseci

      I can’t believe this comment caused so many religious people to start arguing about science. People need to relax and not force their beliefs on anybody, for BOTH sides.

    • FelixIsAFox


      Prije 2 mjeseci

      @241Tsunami You are ignorant

    • David Booker

      David Booker

      Prije 3 mjeseci


  2. Its Me Dammit

    Its Me Dammit

    Prije dan

    Your showing me brown ice and keep saying its a beautiful red. Thats science too, you're told how beautiful the red is so when you get there you have the color programed into your subconscious already and that is what your mind tells your eyes its seeing.

  3. GaNzY_404 / osu!taiko_god

    GaNzY_404 / osu!taiko_god

    Prije dan

    haha its SCP-009 in real form you walked on red ice

  4. robijuli236


    Prije 9 dana

    @0:10 LMAOO

  5. Cosmin Iancu

    Cosmin Iancu

    Prije 11 dana

    "Wow, negative five Celsius is how much Fahrenheit?" "You could do that in your voiceover." Savage!

  6. Helder Paulo

    Helder Paulo

    Prije 20 dana

    "Anartica" 👁👄👁

  7. Max Brazil

    Max Brazil

    Prije 21 dan

    Thanks for driving that image of caramel sauce right out of my head. Thanks a lot.

  8. Asterius


    Prije mjesec

    Looks like diahrea mountain

  9. Sun Hat

    Sun Hat

    Prije mjesec

    "Why is there so little ice on this part of antartica?" That is because there is no such place as antartica.

  10. Hera


    Prije mjesec

    I bet it’s a meteorite impact and all that is the iron ball rusting

  11. Arutax 4714

    Arutax 4714

    Prije mjesec

    Blood Falls looks like Pizza Sauce and Cheese at first glance....

  12. Nurul Zuheinna

    Nurul Zuheinna

    Prije mjesec

    Very interesting video ❤️

  13. zintosion


    Prije mjesec

    The ending scene was cute.

  14. Rouge Tuber

    Rouge Tuber

    Prije mjesec

    I know why Antarctica is bleeding...... It's that time of the millennium😉🤣

  15. Yap Thiam Lim

    Yap Thiam Lim

    Prije mjesec


  16. no name

    no name

    Prije 2 mjeseci

    hello mars

  17. AnimeShinigami13


    Prije 2 mjeseci

    So this is the landscape that inspired "At the Mountains of Madness" hmmm? waiting for the penguins to start crying "Takeli-li! Takeli-li!"

  18. Beth's Vanlife Adventure

    Beth's Vanlife Adventure

    Prije 2 mjeseci

    Looks like dirt not blood.

  19. Crocheted Lace

    Crocheted Lace

    Prije 2 mjeseci

    Nova these days seems to be catering to the junior high kids with the simple minded narration, juvenile music scores and obligatory girl scientists

  20. John McNulty

    John McNulty

    Prije 2 mjeseci

    Sorry, but Enceladus is a moon of Saturn.

  21. clockwork orange

    clockwork orange

    Prije 2 mjeseci

    You can tell the other people have been up there a while, ya gotta make any part of life ya can fun.....FIRE IN THE HOLE!!! 😂

  22. Mandy Shultz

    Mandy Shultz

    Prije 2 mjeseci

    Neat but ppl always mention mars, and i Don't think it looked like mars at all but the rocks looked a bit like plastic like lol

  23. Nika Bichinashvili

    Nika Bichinashvili

    Prije 2 mjeseci

    Hey I wanted to make period joke

  24. pandyz2010


    Prije 2 mjeseci


  25. Phyx1u5


    Prije 2 mjeseci

    this channel is seriously underrated

  26. JUST


    Prije 2 mjeseci

    looks like piss

  27. jojopuppyfish


    Prije 3 mjeseci

    They shouldn't have gone near it if it was during its period

  28. lEMMiGO


    Prije 3 mjeseci

    I think I'm in love *^▁^*

  29. ayush singh

    ayush singh

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    Video starts at 2:50

  30. dodonl


    Prije 3 mjeseci

    hrgreen.info/pack/gZdsbpdwh9CyiZE/video.html&ab_channel=HistoryoftheEarth could this be sutch old ice that its full of ironoxide from this time?

  31. Goliath broodia

    Goliath broodia

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    And no you morons aren't getting super powers. in the comments.

  32. Goliath broodia

    Goliath broodia

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    By the way obama and trump, there will be no jugdment. they'll end or impeach themselves.

  33. Goliath broodia

    Goliath broodia

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    How is this exciting when covid is boring? 10 months and no warning? Let me guess, trump and obama gets blamed. Mean while twitch thots.

  34. Shaun Hall

    Shaun Hall

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    -75 degrees! Yikes!

  35. I Chad's alt

    I Chad's alt

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    My mom: It's because of the god damn phone!

  36. saipan420


    Prije 3 mjeseci

    It's a old spaceship, oozing space creatures.

  37. Yuuup


    Prije 3 mjeseci

    -5.2 °C is actually 5.2 degress below freezing, not 10

  38. David Milton

    David Milton

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    Why does everything have to be so overproduced these days? Just get to the info already...

  39. Padfoot


    Prije 3 mjeseci

    SCP: 009 red ice



    Prije 3 mjeseci

    Aliens: and I would’ve gotten away with it if it weren’t for you medaling scientists!!!!

  41. J P

    J P

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    Does that have any effect on the surrounding ocean?

  42. Konrad


    Prije 3 mjeseci

    Water temperature is -5 C. “Why is the water not freezing 10 degrees below freezing point?” I will never understand americans...

  43. Lisa Schuster

    Lisa Schuster

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    If humans visit Mars, they’ll contaminate it with microbes.

  44. marvin Almas

    marvin Almas

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    Gaia is a living being

  45. John Hemmingway

    John Hemmingway

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    its the same process that happens when you first dig a well or turn on a faucet in a house that has previously had the water turned off and it comes out brown.. that's iron oxide

  46. Scott B

    Scott B

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    You say red, I say rust

  47. wikked clown

    wikked clown

    Prije 3 mjeseci

    There's a horror movie on Netflix based on this exact fuckin event, that's awesome

    • Wertherette


      Prije 3 mjeseci

      Whats the name of it?

  48. Joyfull One

    Joyfull One

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    It looks more orange than red!🍊

  49. William Christy

    William Christy

    Prije 4 mjeseci


  50. farber2


    Prije 4 mjeseci

    So, did they find microbes?

  51. Amarul Arif

    Amarul Arif

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    6:08 what thinkpad is that? X250?

  52. I_!_I Shiva Trident I_!_I

    I_!_I Shiva Trident I_!_I

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Its iron oxide or commonly known as rust

  53. Ken Bowles

    Ken Bowles

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Immature little ❄️

  54. gabriella


    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Ah, so that's the same concept as salty people that cant get cool down.

  55. Vincent Simon

    Vincent Simon

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Either it's iron or some type of microorganism. Blood? Come on man!

  56. Hanif Herdiyan

    Hanif Herdiyan

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    I think that's skyrim

  57. GSD


    Prije 4 mjeseci

    I'd say there is a lot of banging and extra-martial affairs on McMurdo.

  58. lantrick


    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Spoiler... It's not bleeding. Its not blood.

  59. Stevie Sosa

    Stevie Sosa

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    "Who's listening?" Your audience lol. That was hilarious 😂 The scientist is a good time! 🐧 "What the fvck are we doing here?" 🤣

  60. Imam Marco Cahyono

    Imam Marco Cahyono

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    The narrator sounded like Page

  61. Saurabh world

    Saurabh world

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    It is more red in thumbnail

  62. alvin fadlur

    alvin fadlur

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Looks like kara n nate but on sciences

  63. Ryan


    Prije 4 mjeseci

    It's period? Feminism ruined women.

  64. smug senko

    smug senko

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    8:00 confusing perspective

  65. forsaken1 2100

    forsaken1 2100

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    It looks more orange brown than red

  66. Elias


    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Wow I had no idea a glacier could have a period.

  67. A Youtube Channel

    A Youtube Channel

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    It's that time of month for the Earth.



    Prije 4 mjeseci

    This video is full of misleading information,although the content looks scientific, I think it was made for commercial benifits only😡😡😡 shame on you.

  69. ustujnin


    Prije 4 mjeseci

    0:09 scientific overload

  70. sophie the seal

    sophie the seal

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    This is so interesting. Glad I came across this channel

  71. davy Jones with internet access

    davy Jones with internet access

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Yall know the blood glacier horror movie?

  72. Dirk Diggler

    Dirk Diggler

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Could have done without ole girl talking about her nasty period !

  73. GEE GEE


    Prije 4 mjeseci

    We need to just blow shot up to see what’s under all the fucken ice!!

  74. Roger Kind

    Roger Kind

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    “What is that in Fahrenheit?” “Use Siri, kid” LOL Those researchers are savages 😆😆

    • Roger Kind

      Roger Kind

      Prije 9 dana

      @robijuli236 that’s what I would say if what I •actually• wanted to say was something this hard 😆 ...or maybe that’s just me projecting

    • robijuli236


      Prije 9 dana

      I didn’t hear that lol all I heard was her saying she can say it in the voiceover

    • KDH2130


      Prije 4 mjeseci


  75. Dom Vasta

    Dom Vasta

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    It's its time of the millennium. Yes I just made a period joke. Quadruple entendre.

  76. paul jr carty

    paul jr carty

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Ice mined iron ore

  77. Doug Stern

    Doug Stern

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    And gypsum diapers in the high arctic at Expedition Fiord [and other diapers], flow at -20 degrees C - super-saturated with salts like here.

  78. Jordan Keyes

    Jordan Keyes

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Welp after the first 15 seconds I'm out.

  79. Đeadmane corps

    Đeadmane corps

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Imagine, you're a micro organism living under that glacial. You're born in a cold and dark environment, but you don't know that, cz that's how it always been, you don't know that you're the living in shadows, you don't have a single clue that there's other creatures, countries or even planets, all you know is that darkness you live in.. Nothing else.. Seems pretty scary, but in a good way.. It reminds me of how truly small we are

  80. Tristan Cooper

    Tristan Cooper

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    Anne Ardiga ? What?

  81. Kimberley H

    Kimberley H

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    I was thinking that it could be from a hot spring or geyser that cools so much as it reaches the top. Because heated H2O can absorb more salt, and could carry dissolved minerals like iron...or a brine river...love pondering this stuff. great article

  82. Rohit Ghali

    Rohit Ghali

    Prije 4 mjeseci

    3:13 -5.2 celcius is 10 degrees below freezing point of water? Is this even a science channel? What am I missing here?

  83. Tom Havill

    Tom Havill

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    I'm really REALLY enjoying this channel. Everything is done so bloody well. 👍

  84. Chu


    Prije 5 mjeseci

    eeeeh, its orange xD

  85. Ryhthm INC.

    Ryhthm INC.

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    The salt water causes erosion casing the orange hue

  86. Darth Vader

    Darth Vader

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    It's where all the ancient viruses is. Which could absolutely do nothing to us, or make the black death look like a joke.

  87. Katherine Kramer

    Katherine Kramer

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Just imagine how they (the scientists) are going to react now that water has been confirmed on our moon - the dark side no less!

  88. Leroy Reynolds

    Leroy Reynolds

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Without watching the clip or reading the comments I would guess rust.

  89. lightgigas


    Prije 5 mjeseci

    It’s brown

  90. dustypan83


    Prije 5 mjeseci

    There’s so much evidence that life forms can survive and beyond extreme temperatures. Imagine life forms living on the sun. I mean there’s been allot of discovery that debunks allot of theories.

  91. Roger Roberts

    Roger Roberts

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Just had an idea while looking back over these comments: would someone either point out a video (that is the "source of informat" you seem to agree on) coveting how the population if this planet came to disagree on measurement(s)? Or, If there is no video, one should be developed.

  92. Evolution Is The biggest pile of bullshit

    Evolution Is The biggest pile of bullshit

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Just when you didn’t think Antarctica could not be any weirder

  93. Jake


    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Its not really red if you ask me, more like brown obviously rust not blood

  94. ASoggyCracker


    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Oh my god. I said to myself I wanted to taste the water to see how salty and bloody it would be. And when I heard the salt part I was blown away that I realized that. Edit: I also just realized would it be archaebacteria( extreme backteria that is normally completely harmless to us)or eubacteria( the normal bacteria you would come across daily) because would it be in between because it’s feeding on animals blood? Could it be extremely dangerous to us if ingested? I would try to see if there is bacteria and if there wasn’t try to not get any on me because it might try to eat my blood.

    • Yuuup


      Prije 3 mjeseci

      @ASoggyCracker weird.

    • ASoggyCracker


      Prije 3 mjeseci

      Yuuup and the illnesses that might occur might be the rust... if ingested.

    • ASoggyCracker


      Prije 3 mjeseci

      Yuuup lmao I was trying to get people who didn’t watch the video. That would be so silly. Like they wouldn’t be touching it it if it were dangerous because those animals may have some old illnesses. Sorry lmao

    • Yuuup


      Prije 3 mjeseci

      Did you miss the part that it's iron oxide (rust) and not blood? It could be remotely conceivable that the iron oxide is from blood but then there would probably be a really nasty stench that would be hard to deal with and would point to a colony of animals that live underground and bleed into this aquifer. "Blood" falls is just a name

  95. Mike Magic

    Mike Magic

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Propaganda asf

  96. Sher N. Haniff

    Sher N. Haniff

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    No one brought me here

  97. D


    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Wasting your time on the lie of evolution. Should do science from the lens of Creation. Check out hrgreen.info/port/Is7q1bNOeAEd6tsPQBc6Cw

  98. M C

    M C

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    wait what so is brine pools under the sea basically these then?

  99. Roger Roberts

    Roger Roberts

    Prije 5 mjeseci

    After reading these comments I have to wonder why schools exist and why we pay teachers. Man kind is a lost cause.

  100. Mrprecarious


    Prije 5 mjeseci

    Volcanoes have been waking up especially on the west coast of antarctica, how these guys pretend they didnt know this years ago makes me sick.

    • Arlo Perez

      Arlo Perez

      Prije 5 mjeseci

      Feel free to check out our episode about volcanoes in Antarctica: hrgreen.info/pack/qNqtrIaHl9Czc2g/video.html